Tuesday, February 11, 2020
UK Constitutional Law (United Kingdom) - Assignment Example The legislations are however not without issues, as demonstrated in the Jackson v Attorney General  case regarding the legality of the application of Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 to pass the Hunting Act, making it illegal to hunt wild animals using dogs, except in very limited circumstances. 6The case was heard by a Divisional court and later passed on the court of appeal. The court of appeal decision was that constitutional changes could not be passed under the parliament act of 1911. 2The legal issues raised in this case is that any legislation done under the parliament Act of 1911 was not primary, but a subordinate one. The legislative power wielded by the Act was not limited, and thus was open to statutory interpretation. Upon reaching the decision, the judges raised the issue that the Act did not authorize the House of Commons to change or remove any conditions on which the law-making power is based. 6 The judges observed that the 1911 Act was wide to authorize some am endments of the commons law making power, contrary to the 1949 Act, which was observed to be substantial and significant. 6The discussion by the judges was that it was highly unlikely that the House of Commons could contemplate to use the Act to enact a legislation that the House of Lords had not consented to or to abolish the House of Lords completely. 2 If however, the House of Commons had such intentions, then it would be seen as contrary to the intentions of the parliament, when it was enacting such legislations. This gives the opinion that the 1911 act was much ambiguous, and require situational interpretation for its effective applicability. The roots of the two legislations can be traced back to the Budgeting done in the year 1909, which proposed the taxation of lands, with the ideas that a land tax should be introduced to raise budget money. The conservatives, who were mainly the large landowners opposed the proposal and saw its downfall through the House of Lords where they wielded immense power. Consequently, there was a perceived need to limit the powers of the House of Lords, through granting the House of Commons more power, most significantly the power to pass legislations without seeking the approval of the House of Lords. 1The agenda of the refused budget proposal become the bottom-line of the 1910 elections, where the liberals sought to limit the powers of the House of the Lords, when they got back to parliament t after the elections. This was eventually to happen, a milestone that saw the power of the House of Lords, to control and scrutinize all legislations and give their approval before any legislation was passed to a law curtailed. The provisions of Parliament Acts of 1911 underlined the fact that the House of Lords no longer had powers to veto any legislation emanating from the House of Commons. The only exception granted was on the issue of extending the maximum term of the parliament from to over five years. 2 The effect of this was to scrap off the powers of the House of Lords, leaving them with only an authority to delay bills but not to reject
Friday, January 31, 2020
The water cycle Essay The water cycle is a perpetual process in which water evaporates from the various water bodies, forms clouds, descends to the earth as rain or snow and finally reaches the oceans by means of the runoff mechanism (hydrologic cycle, 2002). Storage Water cycle involves vast amounts of water. The earth contains nearly 340 million cu miles of water. Only three percent of this amount of water can be used for drinking. In other words nearly ninety seven percent of the total volume of water available on the earth is in the oceans and therefore salty. However, the water that evaporates does not contain salt and because of this rain water and snow are free of salt. Salt free fresh water is located in glaciers, lakes and rivers. Moreover, ground water is also fresh and free from salt. The earth contains nearly 8. 6 million cubic miles of fresh water. The atmosphere always contains at least 2,900 cubic miles of water in vapor. Storage of water in the rivers and lakes in the world is estimated at 29,000 cubic miles. The principle sources of fresh water are the great polar ice caps. Nearly 6. 7 million cubic miles of water is stored in the polar ice caps. Water stored in the ground is about 2 million cubic miles (Gedzelman, 2005). Evaporation When a phase change occurs by which water gets transformed from a liquid to gas, it is known as evaporation. The quantity of water that evaporates everyday from the surface of the earth is about two hundred and ninety cubic miles. In the absence of evaporation, precipitation would have rendered the atmosphere dry within ten days. The quantity of water that undergoes evaporation is dependent upon various factors like the intensity of the sunlight, plant cover and ground moisture. Evaporation is indirectly proportional to the humidity of the atmosphere. Due to the different climatic zones on the surface of the earth, the rate of evaporation varies from near zero at the poles to about thirteen feet a year over the Gulf Stream. Evaporation of water is offset by precipitation and runoff (Perlman, 2006). Precipitation A phase change that takes place in the atmosphere, whereby water vapor condenses to form clouds and falls on to the earth as rain is known as precipitation. This falling water can be either a liquid as in rain or it can be a solid like snow, ice etc. the daily average of precipitation that falls on to the earth is of the order of seventy cubic miles. About a third of this precipitated water flows into the rivers and streams, while the rest evaporates (Gedzelman, 2005). Runoff Surface runoff occurs when water flows into rivers and streams. On an average about twenty four cubic miles of water is runoff every day. If snow and ice melt rapidly or if any rainfall occurs the result is an overland flow of water. It causes a rapid increase in the water level of a river and this could result in floods. On the other hand, the ground water flow takes place through rocks and the soil. Water from rains and melting snow sweeps through the ground and reaches the water table. Subsequently, this water flows to a water table which is at a lower level. Its speed of flow though only three feet a day is almost constant (Gedzelman, 2005). Effects of Human Activity Human beings use a lot of water; it plays a vital role in their very existence. With the growing population the demand for fresh water is also increasing. A number of methods are used to obtain fresh water, such as irrigation channels, wells etc. Due to the large amount of water being extracted from ground there has been a significant lowering of water table. In some coastal areas the result has been the forcible entry of sea water. Due to global warming there is a vast change in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate. In several regions of the world the water available is unfit for consumption. All these factors have adversely affect water cycle. In the absence of optimal usage of water there is a serious danger that severe water scarcity could transpire (Robert Carpenter, 2001). References Gedzelman, S. D. (2005). Water Cycle. Microsoft Ã ® Encarta Ã ® 2006 (DVD) . Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation. hydrologic cycle. (2002). Retrieved April 20, 2007, from In The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin: http://www. xreferplus. com/entry/2446693 Perlman, H. (2006, Aug 28). The water cycle: Evaporation. Retrieved April 20, 2007, from http://ga. water. usgs. gov/edu/watercycleevaporation. html Robert, J. , Carpenter, S. R. (2001). Water in a changing world . Issues in ecology , 1027-1045.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Frankenstein Speech Outline Introduction What happens when you abandon somebody that you use to care for so dearly? Are they mad and want revenge because of this or do they keep on living their life? In the story Frankenstein by Mary Shelly, Robert Walton, the captain of a ship bound for the North Pole, recounts, to his sister back in England the progress of his dangerous mission. Successful early on, the mission is soon interrupted by seas full of impassable ice. Trapped, Walton encounters Victor Frankenstein, who has been traveling by dog-drawn sledge across the ice and is weakened by the cold. Walton takes him aboard ship, helps nurse him back to health, and hears the fantastic tale of the monster that Frankenstein created and abandon. The monster in Frankenstein goes through a lot of phases and changes and has traits such as being confused, sad, evil, good, and depressed. In the story Frankenstein, it suggests that people must take responsibility for what they do. (First, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the very beginning of the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s life) Body I. MonsterÃ¢â¬â¢s misunderstood by everybody. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like him at first, until later on in his wandering. Making him confused and depressed all of the time because of this reason. A. People run away in fear of him, or try to kill him to get rid of him. Even his creator abandoned him. Everybody wonÃ¢â¬â¢t give him chance to be understood, he is a mystery to everybody, representing the question marks going down the face for his confusion. 1. I, the miserable and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on. (115) This line evokes the motif of abortion: the monster is an unwanted life, a creation abandoned and shunned by his creator. 2. The monster Frankenstein travels alone by himself a lot so no one hurting or screaming at him since he is the eight-foot-tall, hideously ugly creation that everybody runs in fear of. The monster clearly understands later on in the story his position in the world, the tragedy of his existence and abandonment by his creator. 2 3. The monster assists a group of poor peasants and saves a girl from drowning, but because of his outward appearance, he is rewarded only with beatings and disgust. Making him having to fight back and run away. B. Wants to be loved and taken care of, he also wanted to know his purpose in life and why was he created.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
An evaluation of LonrhoÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate strategy should start from the two main key issues: in what businesses the firm should compete and how corporate headquarter should manage those businesses. LonrhoÃ¢â¬â¢s profile in 1996 included Agriculture, Sugar, General Trade, Hotels, Manufacturing, Mining&Refining and Motor&Equipment. The level of diversification was clearly high and the firm was pursuing a unrelated strategy, with less than 70% of revenues that came from the dominant business (Mining ) and without common links between businesses. The corporation was divided into country groups or related business lines and each division had a top manager whose responsibilities were similar to those of a group CEO. So the headquarter control of these groups was not very formal and all important decisions were in the hands of Rowland, that used to follow his strategies without consulting the board. Tiny Rowland wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a pure manager but an entrepreneur interested in doing deals, so he made no efforts to share activities or to transfer core competences between different areas. The main interest was to find undervalued assets and try to make them profitable. Hence we can easily analyse the operational relatedness, since the firm didnÃ¢â¬â¢t share either primary or support activities. Corporate relatedness needs a deeper analysis. All these businesses seem to be related by RowlandÃ¢â¬â¢s huge experience in conducting affairs and by his effective skill in building relationships with African leaders, pursuing the policy of Ã¢â¬Å"investment in peopleÃ¢â¬ . But no more corporate-level competences were transferred among LonrhoÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, maybe because businesses were too different and Tiny did not want to move key people into new management positions. So from these evaluations, the natural conclusion is that LonrhoÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate strategy is an unrelated diversification. In my opinion the corporate level strategy in itself was good (exhibit 1 and 2: high revenues until 1991), but the way in which Rowland managed it was totally wrong. The main strength in its extreme diversification, was the reduction of the risk among the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses. However, this is not enough to make the evaluation positive because there were also several negative aspects. Starting with corporate governance, the first big problem was the lack of power by boardÃ¢â¬â¢s members: Tiny surrounded himself with Ã¢â¬Å"yes-menÃ¢â¬ and he, not the board, decided what to do in case of critical issues. So the entire conglomerate was managed by a man who used to define himself as an entrepreneur and not a manager. Besides the level of control was low, if we consider that Lonrho was a big and really complex company. Moreover, and here we have the second big problem, among TinyÃ¢â¬â¢s investments, several ones defected in economic rationality. For instance, he became interested in trophy investments, only to gain prestige (that the company couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exploit properly because corporate relatedness was low) although they may have been loss making. Finally, the firm was facing huge cash flow problems, due to large headquartersÃ¢â¬â¢ payroll, an inefficient dividend policy and RowlandÃ¢â¬â¢s excessive lifestyle. All these issues contributed to destroy the level of revenues and profits over the years and conducted to the only practicable way: an internal restructuring of assets. What future direction(s) should Lonrho take in terms of its corporate-level strategy? The two main options that Lonrho has for come out to the crisis are move in the direction of focusing the business, or continue as a conglomerate. Most important, the company must immediately start a corporate restructuring strategy. The main purpose should be the limitation of losses, instead of the value and profitability creation. Lonrho could pursue this restructuring strategy both in related business lines and in country groups. For related business lines, hotel and general trade segments were cyclical, capital intensive and they were performing below average, so the firm should try to sell its remaining assets to other companies. Regarding country groups, exhibit 2 shows that in United Kingdom, Europe and America, Lonrho was not doing well, so the board should find a way to leave these areas. With this easier structure, now the firm has to take a definite position. i) A business focusing means that Lonrho will concentrate only on one of the three businesses left. Sugar represented 6% of Lonrho revenues and 18% of operating profit in 1996, and despite low production costs and an access to a favourable mix of markets, this seems the most suitable for being abandoned, just because is the smallest asset in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio. Lonrho Africa is diversified both geographically and in business lines. With an operating profit of ? 52 millions, is a valuable segment, but with Tiny no longer in the picture, Lonrho do not have a real Africa specialist. Finally the mining segment is the most important asset for the firm, because represented 22% of 1996 revenue and 41% of operating profit. In my opinion, if the company has to make a choice, this could be the right market to sustain. Some investments are required for Ashanti Goldfields in Ghana and to improve the export capacity of Duiker mining subsidiary in South Africa. However, if Lonrho will be focused only on this business I think that it will have the types and levels of resources and capabilities needed. Nevertheless I do not think that this corporate strategy is the best. This strategy is mainly concerned with making choices among the last two alternatives. So the corporation would be constrained to relinquish the enormous promise of African continent, or the 41% of mining profit if it chooses to focus in Lonrho Africa. ii) The firm can continue as a conglomerate but for the reason said above, also in this case Lonrho should leave the sugar market. Now we have two businesses left and I would like to make a comparison with the Boston Consulting Group chart. With this corporate strategy, the firm could use mining as a Ã¢â¬Å"cash cowÃ¢â¬ market, trying to exploit the high percentage of the revenues that comes from the asset. Than it can use this cash flow in Lonrho Africa, a proper Ã¢â¬Å"starÃ¢â¬ market, with its enormous promise but also with a lot of investments needed. So with its management expertise, technical skills and a respected name, mixed with new financial resources, Lonrho could undertake some projects in Africa that few other firms could. I think that these are the right actions that the firm should take in term of corporate strategy.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Polk surname most commonly originated as an abbreviated form of the Scots surname Pollack, Gaelic Pollag, meaning from the little pool, pit or pond. The name derives from the Gaelic word poll, meaning pool. Surname Origin: Scottish Alternate Surname Spellings: POLLACK, POLLOCK, POLLOK, PULK, POCK Where the Polk Surname Is Found The Polk surname is by far the most common in the United States, according toÃ WorldNames PublicProfiler, especially in the state of Mississippi. Polk is generally common throughout the southern U.S., including also the states of Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and the District of Columbia. Outside of the United States, the Polk last name is found most frequently in Canada, Germany (especially Baden WÃ ¼rttemberg, Hessen, Sachsen, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommen),Ã and Poland. Surname distribution data from ForebearsÃ agrees that the Polk surname is found primarily in the United States, but it is actually found in the highest density based on the percentage of the population in Slovakia, where the surname ranks as the 346th most common surname in the nation. It is also somewhat common in Poland, Germany, and the Philippines. Within the United Kingdom, where the name generally originated, it is was most prevalent in Surrey, Devon, and Lancashire during the period 1881Ã¢â¬â1901. The Polk surname did not make an appearance in 1881 Scotland, however, the original Scottish version Pollack was most common in Lanarkshire, followed by Stirlingshire and Berwickshire. Famous People with the Last Name Polk James K. PolkÃ - eleventh president of the United StatesBenjamin PolkÃ - American architect and designerEzekiel PolkÃ -Ã American surveyor, soldier, and pioneer; grandfather of President James K. PolkCharles Polk Jr. - American farmer and politician; member of the Federalist Party, followed by the Whig Party Genealogy Resources for the Surname Polk Polk-Pollock DNA Project: Learn more about the history and origins of the Polk surname by joining this Polk Y-DNA surname project. Group members are working to combine DNA testing with traditional genealogy research to learn more about shared Polk ancestors.President James K. Polk Home Museum: About the Polks: Learn about the upbringing and ancestral home of U.S. President James K. Polk, along with the history of his wife Sarah.How to Trace Your Family Tree in England and Wales: Learn how to navigate through the wealth of records available for researching family history in England and Wales with this introductory guide.Presidential Surname Meanings and Origins: Do the surnames of U.S. presidents really have more prestige than your average Smith and Jones? While the proliferance of babies named Tyler, Madison, and Monroe may seem to point in that direction, presidential surnames are really just a cross-section of the American melting pot.Ã Polk Family Crest - Its Not What You Think : Contrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a Polk family crest or coat of arms for the Polk surname.Ã Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male-line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted.FamilySearch - POLK Genealogy: Explore over 440,000 historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Polk surname and its variations on the free FamilySearch website, hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.Polk Family Genealogy Forum: Search this popular genealogy forum for the Polk surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Polk query.POLK Surname Family Mailing Lists: RootsWeb hosts a free mailing list for researchers of the Polk surname. Post a query about your own Polk ancestors, or search or browse the mailing list archives.DistantCousin.com - POLK Genealogy Family History: Explore free databases and genealogy links for the last name Polk.The Polk Genealogy and Family Tree Page: Browse genealogy records and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the popular last name Polk from the website of Genealogy Today. References Cottle, Basil.Ã Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967.Dorward, David.Ã Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998.Fucilla, Joseph.Ã Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003.Hanks, Patrick, and Flavia Hodges.Ã A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989.Hanks, Patrick.Ã Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003.Reaney, P.H.Ã A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997.Smith, Elsdon C.Ã American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.
Sunday, December 29, 2019
As the interest in corporate social responsibility has had the ability to keep increasing and developing and the force that is gain by movement, scholars and practitioners have put effort to follow the progress, development and information of companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance to accomplish their corporate social responsibilities, characteristically to use a particular name corporate social performance (CSP) to describe it. Such corporate social performance shows people and stakeholders things that important about firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ products, services and the processes of producing the products. It now is accepted by a great many people and in many markets, especially spread all over particular areas such as Ã¢â¬Å"environmental impact, social impact, employee relations, and corporate governanceÃ¢â¬ (Kristoffersen, Gerrans and Clark-murphy 2008, 46). Phillip Morris International is an American multinational cigarette and tobacco enterprise, and it is a worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most important and most successful international tobacco enterprise. It has six international brands within worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top 15, and its products are available in more than 180 countries (Pim.com). The Philip Morris international company operates not only making cigarettes but also about the style of doing industry and commerce, and the way of having effects on the exterior of its offices, both domestically and internationally. The Philip Morris International aims to maintain both high domestic and international standards of being a socially responsibleShow MoreRelatedCorporate Social Responsibility : Corporate Responsibility773 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCorporate social responsibility may also be referred to as corporate citizenship and can involve spending finances that do not directly benefit the company but rather advocate positive social and environmental change. The soul in the next economy forum presentation made it evident that achieving corporate social responsibly in a company can reap major benef its in terms of finances, more inspiring workplace and customer satisfaction. In the past, companies mistakenly thought that corporate socialRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Corporate Responsibility2819 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesIntroduction For the past years, corporate social responsibility also referred, as corporate conscience has been a respected subject for discussion. Corporate social responsibility, unquestionably, contains more viewpoint than simply worried about the ecological impacts of associations. It came in people groups mind at the later 1880, time of essential modern advancement that associations ought to think about the thought of social obligation. Associations that are near to social obligation issues got toRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility779 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPolytechnic University of the Philippines Sta. Mesa, Manila College of Business Submitted by: Ramizares, Riza Marie M. BSBA HRDM 4-6N Submitted to: Professor Celso D. Torreon Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility * Organizational Culture is the behavior of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions. Culture includes the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, symbols, beliefsRead MoreCorporate and Social Responsibility997 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBirch (2002). Social, Economic and Environmental Capital. Corporate Citizenship in a New Economy. Deakin University, Melbourne J.M. Darley (2005). How Organizations Socialize Individuals into Evildoing In recent years, Corporate and Social Responsibility has become an ever increasing concern and source of community debate. It is now socially accepted that corporations have some ongoing responsibility, though sometimes ignored, to set a good example, make decisions based on social good and onRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Corporate Social Responsibility Introduction In this essay the author will try to give an understanding of what is the Corporate Social Responsibility, why it is so important nowadays and we will analyse role of Lidl in this area in different dimensions. So what is the Corporate Social Responsibility?The World Business Council for Sustainable Development in its publication Ã¢â¬Å"Making Good Business SenseÃ¢â¬ by Lord Holme and Richard Watts, used the following definition Corporate SocialRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility1030 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Corporate social responsibility (CSR), also called corporate conscience, corporate citizenship, social performance, or sustainable responsible business/corporate social responsibility) is an enterprise self-discipline is integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in automatic adjustment mechanism, make enterprise monitoring, ensuring effective comply with the law, moral and spiritual international norms. In some aircraft, the company to perform corporate social responsibilityRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility8358 Words Ã |Ã 34 Pages1.0 Executive Summary While there is no universally accepted definition of Corporate Social Responsibility, it is usually described in terms of a company considering, managing and balancing the economic, social and environmental impacts of its activities. The notion of corporate social responsibility should be a part of the core business operations of a company, rather than a separate Ã¢â¬Ëadd onÃ¢â¬â¢. Given that socially responsible organizations should seek Ã¢â¬Ëminimize their negative impactsRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility2176 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesservices. The society concerned more about the business ethic and environmental issues. Companies are expected to act virtuously nowadays. The ideas of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Citizenship are spreading faster than ever before and become one of the hottest business models in the recent decades. Ã¢â¬Å"Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)Ã¢â¬ is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development, working with employees, their families, the local communityRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility2476 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCorporate Social Reasonability is a commitment by a corporation to develop socially responsible policies in the areas of work and family life, community welfare, ecology and human rights. Business today has recognized that in order to be successful they must earn the respect and confidence of their customers. Although the bottom line is the concern of any business, companies have now recognized that they have a social and moral obligation to care for the citizens of the world in which they profitRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility1990 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCorporate social responsibility is becoming a key initiative and an essential tool in the growth of multinational corporations and the development of third world countries throughout the globe. The two concepts can work hand in hand to provide benefits for all; however difficulties in regulating and implementing corporate social responsibility need to be overcome before effective changes can be made. Definitions of corporate social responsibility can be somewhat varied depending on the perception
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Further investigations were conducted by (Devos, Comby, Cronan Roesch, 2006) into the combined effects PCST, exercise and physiotherapy delivery. The results indicated that this combination not only improved an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s function and reported pain levels but there were psychological improvements in the individuals who participated in the study. A major disadvantage with delivery of this type of combined therapy is that specialised psychologists that deal in PCST are limited and donÃ¢â¬â¢t have easy access to specialised heath professionals to deliver the combined therapy program (Devos-Comby, Cronan Roesch, 2006). The other intervention in managing OA in the elderly is surgical intervention. This form of intervention and outcomes isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The second factor is wether the intervention should be an arthroscopy procedure or a full joint replacement. An arthroscopy involves the inserting of an arthrocscope into the joint in order to undertake a lavage procedure. The aim is to remove particulate matter such as cartridge and debride articular surfaces of calcium and osteophyteÃ¢â¬â¢s, to leave them smooth. Arthroscopic procedures ideally should aim to decrease synovitis and restore mechanical function, which interferes with joint movement. In a comparative study by (Kirkley et al., 2008), the effects of arthroscopic surgery were assessed for individuals who had [K-L 3, 4] OA of the knee. The 1st group underwent an arthroscopic procedure with physiotherapy and medical management while the 2nd group just had physiotherapy and medical management. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the groups based on WOMAC scores from the initial 8 week assessment till the end of the study period of 2 years. This illustrates that arthroscopic procedure may have very little intervention value for such level of OA in the knee. In relation to total knee replacements (TKR) the efficacy on their effectiveness primarily depends on the postoperative management. In a study by (Moffet et al., 2004) recipients of TKR were divided into 2 groups. One group underwent supervised intense functional retraining (IFR) while in hospital (ie exercises, physiotherapy)